An interesting paper on Brainwashing

“The word “brain-washing”, translated from Chinese communist jargon, is a
very strong metaphor, first popularized by Robert Jay Lifto n. It vividly
describes one person interfering with the personality make-up of another,
removing the other’s ideology and replacing it, and similarly tampering with
the other’s tastes, pool of information to rely upon and whatever else goes
into the make-up of the other’s personality. Clearly, in some sense or another
everyone interferes with the personality of people with whom they interact;
yet what is meant here is something much more drastic than friends
influencing one another’s tastes or opinions; it is something more dramatic
and more large scale.”


“Some people, in Plato’s
lifetime and in the modern world, view Socrates as a sly master of the art of
persuasion, as one adept in the art of stealing into people’s minds to influence
them with sophistry. Be that so; nevertheless, sophistry, even the most
objectionable kind, is not the same as brainwashing.
The same can be said of indoctrination. Good or bad, indoctrination is not
brainwashing. Perhaps re-indoctrination is–the taking away of one
indoctrination and the replacement of it with another. But this should be
examined in technical detail: what is the difference between the two? Why is
the latter so much more objectionable than the former?
One way to re-indoctrinate is through excessive and ceaseless propaganda.
This technique may work, since in time lies constantly presented as true may
penetrate great resistance. Anyway, this is also not the sort of thing that was
labeled brainwashing. No one ever denied that violence can crush people’s
intellectual independence. The best example that comes to mind here is the
Nazi propaganda theory. In it, as in George Orwell’s fables, Animal Farm and
1984, use is made of terror, lies, concealment, psychological pressure–and
these are well-known techniques. These are not the same kind of subtle
manipulations as those known as brainwashing.”

Full pdf article:


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